Quiz 2 – Answers

1. Identify five major Goju-Ryu lineages after Miyagi and their respective founders.

Some of Miyagi’s key students branched in different directions.


Eiichi Miyazato

Eiichi Miyazato

  • Born: 5 July 1922, Naha, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan
  • Died: 11 December 1999, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan
  • In 1957, Miyazato opened his own dojo, the Jundokan


ImaSeikichi Toguchige result

Seikichi Toguchi

  • Born: May 20, 1917 in Naha City, Okinawa
  • Died: Japan – August 31, 1998 in Tokyo)
  • In 1954 Toguchi opened up the first Shorei-kan dojo
 Goju-ryu Kokusai Karate Kobudo Renmei
Seiko Higa

Seiko Higa

  • Born: 8 November 1898, Naha, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan
  • Died: 16 April 1966, (?)
  • In 1960 Higa founded Goju-ryu Kokusai Karate Kobudo Renmei (“Goju-ryu International Karate Kobudo Federation”)


Meitoku Yagi

Meitoku Yagi

  • Born: 6 March 1912, Naha, Okinawa Prefecture, Japa
  • Died: 7 February 2003, (?)
  • Yagi opened his own dojo in the Daido district of Naha. He named his school of Goju-ryu Meibukan


Gogen Yamaguchi

Gogen Yamaguchi

  • Born: January 20 1909, Miyakonojō, Miyazaki, Japan
  • Died:  May 20 1989, (?)
  • In 1935 he officially formed the All Japan Karate-dō Gōjū-kai Association, which later split into the JKF Gojukai and the J.K.G.A


2. What does the last karate precept of Funakoshi’s ‘20 Commandments‘ mean to you?

The 20th principle reads (in English) as “Tsune ni shinen kufu seyo” which can be and has been translated in many ways. Some of the translations I like the most is that of “Attain depth in your karate”or “Karate in every aspect of your life”
What this means to an individual is very personal, but I very much like the idea of making karate an intrinsic way of living my life in and out the dojo, as well as keeping a creative mindset with karate. Create. Create. Create!

3. What does “karate ni shente nashi” mean?

 A fundamental precept of Funakoshi’s 20 Principles, it translates as “There’s no first attach in Karate”. This is also can be understood in many ways and I very much like the idea that karate should never be used to initiate any conflict, quote the opposite, deter it before it happens.
However, it doesn’t necessarily constrains the karate-ka to anticipate an attack if the situation requires it, thus striking first.

4. What are the three fundamental karate kumite strategies?

  •  Go no sen – To defend after the opponent has attacked to completion. Typically, is an uke technology follow by a tori technology.
  • Sen no sen – To defend and counter attack while the opponent is attacking. This requires superb reflexes and explosiveness to get the timing right.
  • Sen sen no sen – To defend by anticipation. Attack just before the opponent has initiate the attacked.


 5. What are Mabuni’s “Uke no henka”?

Uke no henka translates as ‘variation of the defense’ , which Mabuni Kenwa synthesize in five fundamental pricinples called Uke no go gensoku:

Rakka: Like a falling flower
To block with such force that if the technique were applied to the trunk of a tree it would lose all of its flowers. A block should be executed so decisively that it not only halts an opponent’s attack but utterly defeats it with a single technique.

Uchi Uke Yoko Barai

Ryusui: Like flowing water
To flow with your opponents movements, using them against him and as an aid to your defense. Respond to your opponent using fluid movement.

Nagashi Uke

Kusshin: (“Darting out and in”) Control of an attack that uses body movement originating in the knees. Keep your spine straight and use your knees to control your height, giving you balance and the strength of your legs so that little effort is required to control the attack. Springing. A reflexive, darting “out and in” kind of body shifting from any angle.

Shuto Uke Kokutsu Gedan Barai

Tenshin: Tai sabaki,(rolling the body by stepping out)
Essentially avoiding your opponent’s attack using body movement. Stepping out in all directions.

Shotei Uke

Hangeki: Counter attack
When the need arises, respond to your opponents attacks with decisive, powerful counter-attacks. By utilizing the first four principles you may never need to implement the fifth, but if required you should apply you whole mind and body to the counter.

Jodan Tsuki Uke

6. Which major karate style has the most number of katas and why?

It’s well known that shito-ryu is the style of karate with the largest number of kate because Mabuni Kenwa studied Naha-te and Shuri-Te arts under Hi-shi-gaonna and Itosu, therefore absorbing all the katas in both systems.

There are various branches of shito-ryu with anything from 40 to 60 different forms.


7. What is the relationship between To’on Ryu and Goju-Ryu?

To’on Ryu was founded by Miyagi’s senior peer Juhatsu Kyoda (許田 重発 Kyoda Juhatsu, December 5, 1887–August 31, 1968).
To’on Ryu is a true sister style to goju-ryu karate and in the passing of Miyagi, his students approached Kyoda and asked if he would take the leadership of the Goju-Ryu, which he considered on the condition of changing or adding the name to To’on to the style, which was denied by the students.

8. What other name is Pangai noon known as?

Pangain noon could be translated as “half-hard, half-soft”, the style was renamed Uechi-Ryū after the founder of the style, Kanbun Uechi.

Kanbun Uechi

Kanbun Uechi

  • Born: May 5, 1877 Motobu, Okinawa, Ryukyu Kingdom
  • Died: November 25, 1948 (aged 71) Ie, Okinawa, Empire of Japan

9. What was Shito-Ryu called first and why?

Initially, it was refere to as Hanko-Ryu, meaning “half-hard” style, but this changed to “Shi” and “To” in honor to Mabuni’s main teachers, Hishigaonna and Itosu

10. Who were the grandparents of Shorin and Shorei Ryu, respectively, and when where they born and deceased?

Shorin-Ryu (Shuri-te)

Anko Itosu

Anko Itosu

  • Born 1831, Gibo Village, Shuri, Ryūkyū Kingdom
  • Died 11 March 1915, Shuri, Okinawa, Japan


Shorei-Ryu (Naha-Te)

Higaonna Kanryō

Higaonna Kanryō

  • Born March 10 1853, Nishimura, Naha, Ryūkyū Kingdom
  • Died Oct 1915, Naha, Okinawa

Comments are closed.